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Posts Tagged ‘Net Current Asset Value’

Wes Gray’s Turnkey Analyst has a guest post from Paul Sepulveda in which Paul  asks if it’s possible to improve net net returns by removing stocks with the highest risk of going to zero (the real losers).

Paul has an interesting approach:

My goal was to chop off the left tail of the distribution of returns. Piotroski uses his F-Score to achieve a similar goal among a universe of firms with low P/B (i.e., “value” firms). After collecting the data on recent net-net “cigar-butts”, I quickly realized something: about half of my list consisted of Chinese reverse-merger companies! These firms definitely had a decent shot of going to zero after shareholders realized Bernie Madoff was the CEO and Arthur Anderson was performing the audit work. I separated these companies from the remaining universe. For completeness, I also recorded market caps and Piotroski scores to create alternative net-net universes I could study.

Here are his results:

Paul has only six months of data, but the experiment is ongoing. He has some other interesting observations. See the rest of the post here.

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The Wall Street Journal has an article, Activist Holders Eye Top Managers for Boards, discussing the trend for executives running public companies to switch to activist boardroom roles where they can oust executives who run other public companies:

To enhance their credibility in proxy fights, dissident investors increasingly put experienced corporate officials—including some former chief executives—on their board-seat slates, rather than simply propose relatively inexperienced managers from the activist firm. The tactic turns up the heat on the leaders of struggling businesses, and may increase dissidents’ board victories, sometimes resulting in the replacement of the CEO.

The “trend” is perhaps more in the telling than the numbers, but interesting nonetheless:

About 24% of 213 dissident nominees in 2009 contests had held top management roles at a public company, up from nearly 22% of 73 such candidates in 2004, reports data tracker FactSet SharkWatch.

The article focusses on John Mutch, the former CEO of Peregrine Systems Inc., who has “helped force out the heads of four small technology firms since 2006:”

“If I believe management is engaged in stupid, idiotic actions, I stand up and tell them so,” says Mr. Mutch. “In most cases, that means replacing the CEO.”

Most interesting for we net net folk was his involvement in the fight for Adaptec, Inc. (NASDAQ:ADPT), and the broader implications for activism in technology stocks:

Mr. Mutch says the experience convinced him that many high-tech companies “are undervalued, undermanaged and poorly governed.”

Mr. Mutch and Steel Partners launched a proxy battle for ADPT in 2007. Steel’s filings cited ADPT’s poor financial performance. Here’s the discussion in the reasons for the solicitation from the original proxy:

Given the Company’s poor track record, we believe that the Adaptec Board should not be trusted to assess acquisitions, growth investments, and product expansions while overseeing a restructuring plan.

Specifically, our concerns include the following:

· Adaptec’s operational performance has deteriorated under management and the Adaptec Board;

· Adaptec’s poor acquisition strategy and recent about-faces in strategic direction have resulted in further erosion to stockholder value;

· Adaptec’s stock performance has lagged indices and peers; and

· Adaptec has rewarded executive officers with excessive compensation packages and retention bonuses despite the Company’s poor performance.

ADPT agreed to put Mr. Mutch and Steel executives Jack Howard and John Quicke on its board ahead of the shareholder vote. The WSJ describes what happened next:

A contentious boardroom brawl occurred last August. Aristos Logic, which Adaptec acquired for $41 million in 2008, was generating less revenue growth than expected, Mr. Sundaresh informed analysts that month. Mr. Sundaresh proposed to fellow directors that they either sell the Aristos business or cut back investments severely to get costs under control, according to an attendee at the board meeting.

Mr. Mutch says he stood and attacked the CEO for switching strategy. “You sold us a bill of goods when you bought this company,” he recalls saying. “You’re not taking responsibility for this deal.” A shouting match erupted, with people “screaming at each other,” he adds.

Robert Loarie, another ally of Mr. Sundaresh, says Mr. Mutch unfairly accused the CEO of shirking his duties. Ex-director Joseph Kennedy says the dissidents also never grasped Adaptec’s strategy, and occasionally read newspapers during board discussions.

Mr. Mutch calls Mr. Kennedy’s and Mr. Loarie’s criticisms “incredulous.”

That same week, the split board replaced Mr. Howard as chairman. Steel won shareholders’ written approval to kick Messrs. Sundaresh and Loarie off the board last fall. The CEO soon resigned.

Mr. Mutch also joined activists to threaten proxy fights at Phoenix Technologies Ltd. (NASDAQ:PTEC), Aspyra, Inc (PINK:APYI) and Agilysys, Inc. (Public, NASDAQ:AGYS), and eventually got board seats at all three companies. Mr. Mutch says the CEOs in each case left during or soon after the possible contest. Perhaps a trend to watch.

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I’m considering launching a subscription-only service aimed at identifying stocks similar to those in the old Wall Street’s Endangered Species reports. Like the old Wall Street’s Endangered Species reports, I’ll be seeking undervalued industrial companies where a catalyst in the form a buy-out, strategic acquisition, liquidation or activist campaign might emerge to close the gap between price and value. The main point of difference between the old Piper Jaffray reports and the Greenbackd version will be that I will also include traditional Greenbackd-type stocks (net nets, sub-liquidation values etc) to the extent that those type of opportunities are available. The cost will be between $500 and $1,000 per annum for 48 weekly emails with a list of around 30 to 50 stocks and some limited commentary.

If you would like to receive a free trial copy of the report if and when it is produced in exchange for providing feedback on its utility (or lack thereof), would you please send an email to greenbackd [at] gmail [dot] com. If there is sufficient interest in the report I’ll go ahead and produce the trial copy.

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I’m a huge fan of James Montier’s work on the rationale for a quantitative investment strategy and global Graham net net investing. Miguel Barbosa of Simoleon Sense has a wonderful interview with Montier, covering his views on behavioral investing and value investment. Particularly interesting is Montier’s concept of “seductive details” and the implications for investors:

Miguel: Let’s talk about the concept of seductive details…can you give us an example of how investors are trapped by irrelevant information?

James Montier: The sheer amount of irrelevant information faced by investors is truly staggering. Today we find ourselves captives of the information age, anything you could possibly need to know seems to appear at the touch of keypad. However, rarely, if ever, do we stop and ask ourselves exactly what we need to know in order to make a good decision.

Seductive details are the kind of information that seems important, but really isn’t. Let me give you an example. Today investors are surrounded by analysts who are experts in their fields. I once worked with an IT analyst who could take a PC apart in front of you, and tell you what every little bit did, fascinating stuff to be sure, but did it help make better investment decisions, clearly not. Did the analyst know anything at all about valuing a company or a stock, I’m afraid not. Yet he was immensely popular because he provided seductive details.

Montier’s “seductive details” is reminiscent of the discussion in Nicholas Taleb’s Fooled by Randomness on the relationship between the amount of information available to experts, the accuracy of judgments they make based on this information, and the experts’ confidence in the accuracy of these judgements. Intuition suggests that having more information should increase the accuracy of predictions about uncertain outcomes. In reality, more information decreases the accuracy of predictions while simultaneously increasing the confidence that the prediction is correct. One such example is given in the paper The illusion of knowledge: When more information reduces accuracy and increases confidence (.pdf) by Crystal C. Hall, Lynn Ariss, and Alexander Todorov. In that study, participants were asked to predict basketball games sampled from a National Basketball Association season:

All participants were provided with statistics (win record, halftime score), while half were additionally given the team names. Knowledge of names increased the confidence of basketball fans consistent with their belief that this knowledge improved their predictions. Contrary to this belief, it decreased the participants’ accuracy by reducing their reliance on statistical cues. One of the factors contributing to this underweighting of statistical cues was a bias to bet on more familiar teams against the statistical odds. Finally, in a real betting experiment, fans earned less money if they knew the team names while persisting in their belief that this knowledge improved their predictions.

This is not an isolated example. In Effects of amount of information on judgment accuracy and confidence, by Claire I. Tsai, Joshua Klayman, and Reid Hastie, the authors examined two other studies that further that demonstrate when decision makers receive more information, their confidence increases more than their accuracy, producing “substantial confidence–accuracy discrepancies.” The CIA have also examined the phenomenon. In Chapter 5 of Psychology of Intelligence Analysis, Do you really need more information?, the author argues against “the often-implicit assumption that lack of information is the principal obstacle to accurate intelligence judgments:”

Once an experienced analyst has the minimum information necessary to make an informed judgment, obtaining additional information generally does not improve the accuracy of his or her estimates. Additional information does, however, lead the analyst to become more confident in the judgment, to the point of overconfidence.

Experienced analysts have an imperfect understanding of what information they actually use in making judgments. They are unaware of the extent to which their judgments are determined by a few dominant factors, rather than by the systematic integration of all available information. Analysts actually use much less of the available information than they think they do.

Click here to see the Simoleon Sense interview.

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Yesterday I ran a post on Dr. Michael Burry, the value investor who was one of the first, if not the first, to figure out how to short sub-prime mortgage bonds in his fund, Scion Capital. In The Big Short, Michael Lewis discusses Burry’s entry into value investing:

Late one night in November 1996, while on a cardiology rotation at Saint Thomas Hospital, in Nashville, Tennessee, he logged on to a hospital computer and went to a message board called techstocks.com. There he created a thread called “value investing.” Having read everything there was to read about investing, he decided to learn a bit more about “investing in the real world.” A mania for Internet stocks gripped the market. A site for the Silicon Valley investor, circa 1996, was not a natural home for a sober-minded value investor. Still, many came, all with opinions. A few people grumbled about the very idea of a doctor having anything useful to say about investments, but over time he came to dominate the discussion. Dr. Mike Burry—as he always signed himself—sensed that other people on the thread were taking his advice and making money with it.

Michael Burry’s blog, http://www.valuestocks.net, seems to be lost to the sands of time, but Burry’s techstocks.com “Value Investing” thread (now Silicon Investor) still exists. The original post in the thread hints at the content to come:

Started: 11/16/1996 11:01:00 PM

Ok, how about a value investing thread?

What we are looking for are value plays. Obscene value plays. In the Graham tradition.

This week’s Barron’s lists a tech stock named Premenos, which trades at 9 and has 5 1/2 bucks in cash. The business is valued at 3 1/2, and it has a lot of potential. Interesting.

We want to stay away from the obscenely high PE’s and look at net working capital models, etc. Schooling in the art of fundamental analysis is also appropriate here.

Good luck to all. Hope this thread survives.

Mike

Hat tip Toby.

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The superb Manual of Ideas blog has an article by Ravi Nagarajan, Marty Whitman Reflects on Value Investing and Net-Nets, on legendary value investor Marty Whitman’s conversation with Columbia Professor Bruce Greenwald at the Columbia Investment Management Conference in New York. I have in the past discussed Marty Whitman’s adjustments to Graham’s net net formula, which I find endlessly useful. Whitman has some additional insights that I believe are particularly useful to net net investors:

“Cheap is Not Sufficient”

At several points in the discussion with Prof. Greenwald, Mr. Whitman came back to a central theme:  It is not sufficient for a security to be “cheap”.  It must also possess a margin of safety as demonstrated by a strong balance sheet and overall credit worthiness.   In other words, there are many securities that may appear cheap statistically based on a number of common criteria investors use to judge “cheapness”.  This might include current year earnings compared to the stock price, current year cash flow, and many others.  However, if the business does not have a durable balance sheet, adverse situations that are either of the company’s own making or due to macroeconomic factors can determine the ultimate fate of the company.  A durable balance sheet demonstrates the credit worthiness a business needs to manage through periodic adversity.

Whitman also discusses an issue near and dear to my heart: good corporate governance, and, by implication, activism:

One other point that Mr. Whitman made while discussing corporate governance also applies to many net-net situations.  The true value of a company may never come out if there is no threat of a change in control.  This obviously makes intuitive sense because the presence of a very cheap company alone will not result in realization of value unless management is willing to act in the interests of shareholders either by liquidating a business that has no future prospects but a very liquid balance sheet or taking steps to improve the business.

Read the balance of the article at The Manual of Ideas blog.

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Jon Heller of the superb Cheap Stocks, one of the inspirations for this site, has published the results of his two year net net index experiment in Winding Down The Cheap Stocks 21 Net Net Index; Outperforms Russell Microcap by 1371 bps, S&P 500 by 2537 bps.

The “CS 21 Net/Net Index” was “the first index designed to track net/net performance.” It was a simply constructed, capitalization-weighted index comprising the 21 largest net nets by market capitalization at inception on February 15, 2008. Jon had a few other restrictions on inclusion in the index, described in his introductory post:

  • Market Cap is below net current asset value, defined as: Current Assets – Current Liabilities – all other long term liabilities (including preferred stock, and minority interest where applicable)
  • Stock Price above $1.00 per share
  • Companies have an operating business; acquisition companies were excluded
  • Minimum average 100 day volume of at least 5000 shares (light we know, but welcome to the wonderful world of net/nets)
  • Index constituents were selected by market cap. The index is comprised of the “largest” companies meeting the above criteria.

The Index is naïve in construction in that:

  • It will be rebalanced annually, and companies no longer meeting the net/net criteria will remain in the index until annual rebalancing.
  • Only bankruptcies, de-listings, or acquisitions will result in replacement
  • Does not discriminate by industry weighting—some industries may have heavy weights.

If a company was acquired, it was not replaced and the proceeds were simply held in cash. Further, stocks were not replaced if they ceased being net nets.

Says Jon of the CS 21 Net/Net Index performance:

This was simply an experiment in order to see how net/nets at a given time would perform over the subsequent two years.

The results are in, and while it was not what we’d originally hoped for, it does lend credence to the long-held notion that net/nets can outperform the broader markets.

The Cheap Stocks 21 Net Net Index finished the two year period relatively flat, gaining 5.1%. During the same period, The Russell Microcap Index was down 8.61%, while the Russell Microcap Index was down 9.9%. During the same period, the S&P 500 was down 20.27%.

Here are the components, including the weightings and returns of each:

Adaptec Inc (ADPT)
Weight: 18.72%
Computer Systems
+7.86%
Audiovox Corp (VOXX)
Weight: 12.20%
Electronics
-29.28%
Trans World Entertainment (TWMC)
Weight:7.58%
Retail-Music and Video
-69.55%
Finish Line Inc (FINL)
Weight:6.30%
Retail-Apparel
+350.83%
Nu Horizons Electronics (NUHC)
Weight:5.76%
Electronics Wholesale
-25.09%
Richardson Electronics (RELL)
Weight:5.09%
Electronics Wholesale
+43.27%
Pomeroy IT Solutions (PMRY)
Weight:4.61%
Acquired
-3.8%
Ditech Networks (DITC)
Weight:4.31%
Communication Equip
-56.67%
Parlux Fragrances (PARL)
Weight:3.92%
Personal Products
-51.39%
InFocus Corp (INFS)
Weight:3.81%
Computer Peripherals
Acquired
Renovis Inc (RNVS)
Weight:3.80%
Biotech
Acquired
Leadis Technology Inc (LDIS)
Weight:3.47%
Semiconductor-Integrated Circuits
-92.05%
Replidyne Inc (RDYN) became Cardiovascular Systems (CSII)
Weight:3.31%
Biotech
[Edit: +126.36%]
Tandy Brands Accessories Inc (TBAC)
Weight:2.94%
Apparel, Footwear, Accessories
-57.79%
FSI International Inc (FSII)
Weight:2.87%
Semiconductor Equip
+66.47%
Anadys Pharmaceuticals Inc (ANDS)
Weight:2.49%
Biotech
+43.75%
MediciNova Inc (MNOV)
Weight:2.33%
Biotech
+100%
Emerson Radio Corp (MSN)
Weight:1.71%
Electronics
+118.19%
Handleman Co (HDL)
Weight:1.66%
Music- Wholesale
-88.67%
Chromcraft Revington Inc (CRC)
Weight:1.62%
Furniture
-54.58%
Charles & Colvard Ltd (CTHR)
Weight:1.50%
Jewel Wholesale
-7.41%

Cash Weight: 8.58%

Jon is putting together a new net net index, which I’ll follow if he releases it into the wild.

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