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Archive for April, 2009

Vanda Pharmaceuticals Inc. (NASDAQ:VNDA) has reported its results for the first quarter ended March 31, 2009.

We’ve been following VNDA (see our post archive here) because it’s trading below its net cash value and Tang Capital Partners (TCP) has called for the company to “cease operations immediately, liquidate [VNDA]’s assets and distribute all remaining capital to the Stockholders.” TCP has now filed a preliminary proxy statement for the 2009 Annual Meeting urging stockholders to support TCP’s slate of two director nominees, Kevin C. Tang and Andrew D. Levin, M.D., Ph.D. The stock is up 29.5% since we initiated the position to close yesterday at $1.01, giving the company a market capitalization of $24.3M. We initially estimated the net cash value to be around $42.6M or $1.60 per share. We’ve now reduced our estimate of the net cash value to $38.6M or $1.45 per share. The company continues to hemorrhage cash, so the investment turns on TCP’s ability to get control of the board at the Annual Meeting and staunch the bleeding. If TCP cannot get onto the board quickly, the company will continue to burn cash and the investment will be a dud. VNDA has a staggered board, which makes TCP’s task difficult.

The value proposition updated

In the first quarter of 2009 VNDA burned through $3.8M in cash, which reduces our estimate of the net cash value from $42.6M to $38.6M or $1.45 per share (the remaining difference is due to the slight increase in shares on issue). Set out below is our summary balance sheet  (the “Book Value” column shows the assets as they are carried in the financial statements, and the “Liquidating Value” column shows our estimate of the value of the assets in a liquidation):

vnda-summary-2009-12-31

Conclusion

VNDA continues to be an interesting play. While the stock is up nearly 30% since we initiated the position, it is still trading at a 45% discount to our estimate of its $1.45 per share net cash value. That value is of course deteriorating rapidly, and the challenge for investors is to determine which of two outcomes is more likely: If TCP can get on the board quickly, stop the cash burn and liquidate the company, we’re likely to see a good return. If TCP cannot get onto the board quickly or at all, the company will continue to burn cash and the investment will be a dud. VNDA has a staggered board, so this will make TCP’s task difficult. We’re inclined to maintain our position and see how this plays out.

[Full Disclosure:  We do not have a holding in VNDA. This is neither a recommendation to buy or sell any securities. All information provided believed to be reliable and presented for information purposes only. Do your own research before investing in any security.]

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Genaera Corporation (NASDAQ:GENR) is a first for us: a short play. The company has announced that the board of directors has approved a Plan of Liquidation and Dissolution forecasting distributions of between $0.002 and $0.0173 per share contingent on a sale of its assets. We believe the most likely outcome to be a distribution of nil. The stock is currently at $0.18. The risk to the short position is a sale of the company’s intellectual property, which we think is unlikely for the reasons we describe below.

About GENR

GENR is a biopharmaceutical company focused on advancing the science and treatment of metabolic diseases. It has announced a plan to liquidate:

Genaera Corporation Announces Approval of Plan of Liquidation and Dissolution by Board of Directors

Plymouth Meeting, PA – April 28, 2009 – Genaera Corporation (the “Company”)(NASDAQ: GENR) today announced that its Board of Directors has determined, after extensive and careful consideration of the Company’s strategic alternatives, that it is in the best interests of the Company and its stockholders to liquidate the Company’s assets and to dissolve the Company. The Company’s Board of Directors has approved a Plan of Complete Liquidation and Dissolution of the Company (the “Plan of Dissolution”), subject to stockholder approval. The Company intends to hold a special meeting of stockholders to seek approval of the Plan of Dissolution and has filed preliminary proxy materials with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and will file definitive proxy materials in the near future.

The Plan of Dissolution contemplates an orderly wind down of the Company’s business and operations. If the Company’s stockholders approve the Plan of Dissolution, the Company intends to file articles of dissolution, satisfy or resolve its remaining liabilities and obligations, including but not limited to contingent liabilities and claims, lease obligations, severance for terminated employees and costs associated with the liquidation and dissolution, and attempt to convert all of its remaining assets into cash or cash equivalents. Based on current projections of operating expenses and liquidation costs the Company currently estimates that it will not make liquidating distributions to stockholders unless and until a sale of one or all of its assets has been consummated. Following stockholder approval of the Plan of Dissolution and the filing of articles of dissolution, the Company would delist its common stock from NASDAQ.

If, prior to its dissolution, the Company receives an offer for a corporate transaction that will, in the view of the Board of Directors, provide superior value to stockholders than the value of the estimated distributions under the Plan of Dissolution, taking into account all factors that could affect valuation, including timing and certainty of closing, credit market risks, proposed terms and other factors, the Plan of Dissolution could be abandoned in favor of such a transaction.

The value proposition

GENR has funded its operations primarily from the proceeds of public and private placements of its securities and through contract and grant revenues, research and development expense reimbursements, the sale of a Pennsylvania research and development tax credit carry forwards and interest income. It has not nor will it ever have products available for sale and has incurred losses since inception.

The notice of special meeting filed yesterday anticipates a maximum distribution of $0.0173 per share and the company does not expect to make a distribution “unless and until a sale of one or all of our assets has been consummated.” The balance sheet as at March 31, 2009 shows $5.3M in cash and equivalents less $2M in liabilities, which equates to a net cash value of $3.3M or $0.19 per share before we deduct the following:

  • ongoing operating expenses;
  • expenses incurred in connection with extending directors’and officers’ insurance coverage;
  • expenses incurred in connection with the liquidation and dissolution process;
  • severance and related costs; and
  • professional, legal, consulting and accounting fees.

Assuming between $3M and $4M for the foregoing, GENR has between $0.02 per share and nil net cash value in liquidation, with nil being more likely.

The company’s own estimates are as follows:

Based on our current projections of operating expenses and liquidation costs, we currently estimate that distributions to stockholders would only occur in the event of a consummation of the sale of one or more of our assets:

genr-summary

(1) Estimated salaries and related benefits for employees through May 31, 2009.
(2) Represents final research and development expenses related to the wind down of our trodusquemine program, including clinical trial costs, third-party contract research costs and manufacturing expenses.
(3) Other operating expenses consists of facilities expenses, legal, accounting and intellectual property expenses, consulting and other fees and insurance costs including the payment of $255,000 for directors and officers liability insurance covering six years from the date of stockholder approval of the Plan of Dissolution.
(4) Estimated cash use for severance payments to employees remaining after March 31, 2009, including Executive Officers. Amounts included in the table for Executive Officers do not include amounts due under the Executive Officers and Dr. Wolfe’s change of control agreements. See “Interests of Certain Directors and Executive Officers in Approval of the Plan of Dissolution – Summary of Benefits of Certain Executive Officers” for additional information related to severance payments to the Executive Officers. The severance costs shown in the table include $1,012,000 to be paid to the Executive Officers, $516,000 to be paid to other employees, $95,000 of associated payroll taxes and $42,000 for ongoing health benefits under employee severance agreements for all employees.

The risk to this analysis is the company actually manages to sell its intellectual property assets, and we’re going to explore GENR’s efforts to sell those assets in some detail below.

Likelihood of asset sales

According to the proxy statement for the special meeting, GENR has made extensive efforts to sell or license its intellectual property without success since 2008. Throughout 2008 management contacted over 90 prospective strategic partners, both domestic and international. This resulted in approximately 25 companies signing non-disclosure agreements and receiving non-public evaluation materials. Subsequently, two parties submitted expressions of interest in the purchase of two separate assets.

GENR and its legal advisors have been engaged in discussions with one prospective purchaser in an attempt to reach an agreement regarding the acquisition price and the other terms of a definitive agreement. According to GENR, the parties are generally in agreement on the proposed terms of a definitive agreement and continue to communicate, but have been unable to complete the transaction. With regard to the second potential purchaser, GENR is currently engaged in discussions in an attempt to reach an agreement regarding the acquisition price of the other asset.

In 2009, as a result of limited interest in GENR’s other assets and the unanticipated delay in the consummation of the transaction, GENR engaged of outside parties to assist in licensing and/or partnering its trodusquemine program. The scope of the oustide engagement included searching for a purchaser, licensee or partner acceptable to GENR and assisting it in negotiating the financial aspects of a transaction.

Between January and March 2009, the oustide parties contacted 43 potential purchasers and/or partners, which resulted in 23 rejections, 9 pending reviews and the execution of 11 non-disclosure agreements to review non-public evaluation materials. The review of confidential information resulted in six rejections and meaningful discussions with three potential licensors and/or purchasers.

At the April 8, 2009 meeting of the board, the board reviewed the prospects for partnering and/or licensing the trodusquemine program, the status of the sales of two of its assets, as well as alternative means to fund the company. As neither of the asset sales had been consummated or were projected to be consummated imminently, the board instructed management to prepare a plan of dissolution in conjunction with the outside counsel for review and consideration at the next board meeting.

Conclusion

GENR is a short play because the current stock price is almost ten times the company’s projected distribution in the liquidation of the company. The stock is currently at $0.18. The company forecasts distributions of between $0.002 and $0.0173 per share contingent on a sale of its assets. We believe there is a very real possibility the distribution could be nil.  The risk to the short position is a sale of the company’s intellectual property, which we think is unlikely.

Hat tip Anon.

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In Now a baker’s dozen in North Dakota, footnoted.org’s Michelle Leder tracks the small, but growing number of companies whose shareholders are requesting via the annual proxy process that their companies relocate to North Dakota:

Last week, 11 companies, including Exxon Mobil (EOM), Southwest (LUV), and Amgen (AMGN), were on the list. But since Friday, two more companies have been targeted, which makes it a baker’s dozen. Over the past two days, shareholder activist John Chevedden, who has introduced proposals at Southwest and two others, added Continental Airlines (CAL) and Staples (SPLS) to his list.

The rush is on because the corporations law in North Dakota is intended to be much friendlier to shareholders. Shareholders in North Dakota can expect the following (from the 2007 press release announcing the bill):

· Majority voting in election of directors. In an uncontested election of directors, shareholders have the right to vote “yes” or “no” on each candidate, and only those candidates receiving a majority of “yes” votes are elected.

· Advisory shareholder votes on compensation reports. The compensation committee of the board of directors must report to the shareholders at each annual meeting of shareholders and the shareholders have an advisory vote on whether they accept the report of the committee.

· Proxy access. The corporation must include in its proxy statement nominees proposed by 5% shareholders who have held their shares for at least two years.

· Reimbursement for successful proxy contests. The corporation must reimburse shareholders who conduct a proxy contest to the extent the shareholders are successful. Thus, if a shareholder conducts a proxy contest to place three directors on a corporation’s board and two of the candidates are elected, the shareholder will be entitled to reimbursement of two-thirds of the cost of the proxy contest.

· Separation of roles of Chair and CEO. The board of directors must have a chair who is not an executive officer of the corporation.

As we’ve discussed previously, Carl Icahn is a supporter of North Dakota’s initiative, and has even proposed a federal law that allows shareholders to vote by simple majority to migrate a company from its state of incorporation to more shareholder-friendly states, including North Dakota. At present, that power is vested in boards, which means that even if the proposal passes, the boards must embrace the proposal before it is binding on the company. Leder thinks this means it’s unlikely that the companies will up stakes for North Dakota, but it’s interesting to watch.

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Autobytel Inc’s (NASDAQ:ABTL) board has responded to Trilogy, Inc’s $0.35 per share tender offer, calling it “grossly inadequate” and “unequivocally” recommending that stockholders reject it.

We started following ABTL (see our post archive here) because it was trading at a substantial discount to its liquidation and net cash values and Trilogy had filed a 13D notice disclosing a 7.4% holding. Trilogy has now launched a tender offer for ABTL at $0.35 per share, which is at our estimate of ABTL’s $15.4M or $0.34 per share net cash value, but at a substantial discount to our estimate of ABTL’s $24.3M or $0.54 per share liquidation value. When Trilogy launched its offer, we wrote that we believed that $0.35 per share was only the opening salvo and a higher price was possible if the board terminated the rights plan poison pill. The stock closed yesterday at $0.515, which is a huge 47% premium to Trilogy’s offer price and suggests the market is also anticipating a higher offer. The stock is up 19.8% since we started following it in December.

Here’s the letter from ABTL:

April 27, 2009

Dear Stockholder:

On Monday, April 20, 2009, I received a letter from Trilogy Enterprises, Inc. (“Trilogy”) indicating that Trilogy had launched a tender offer for all of Autobytel Inc.’s (our “Company”) outstanding shares of common stock at $0.35 per share.

Our Board of Directors (our “Board”), in consultation with its legal and financial advisors, has evaluated Trilogy’s offer and has found Trilogy’s $0.35 offer price to be grossly inadequate and unequivocally recommends to stockholders that they reject Trilogy’s offer and not tender their shares to Trilogy.

Our Board also believes that the combination of actions taken by our Company as described below will result in our stockholders achieving significantly more value than the offer made by Trilogy. In reaching its decision to recommend that stockholders reject the Trilogy offer and not tender their shares to Trilogy, our Board considered many factors, including:

• Our Company’s strong balance sheet and current cash and receivables position, noting, in particular, that our Company’s cash position alone is substantially in excess of Trilogy’s offer.

• The initial reaction of the securities trading markets to Trilogy’s offer appears to support our Board’s decision that the offer price is inadequate.

• The recent thorough evaluation of strategic alternatives conducted by our Board, including the possible sale of our Company, which concluded that selling our Company in today’s environment was not in the best interest of maximizing value.

• The indications of interest received and offers from potential buyers for our Company as a result of the sale process.

• Inquiries made to our Company’s financial advisor by other interested parties in response to Trilogy’s offer.

• The reasons for the Board’s decision to terminate the sale process, including:

• The value of our Company’s websites; and

• The value of our Company’s intellectual property, particularly its patents, which resulted in a $20 million settlement with the Dealix Corporation in 2006 and most recently settlements with Edmunds.com, Internet Brands, InsWeb and Lead Point that will provide our Company with valuable content, images, shopping and interactive tools and data for our websites.

• Other strategic alternatives being evaluated by our Board and management team.

• The belief that Trilogy is being opportunist in exploiting a recent extreme price decline in our common stock and use of confidential information about our Company obtained by Trilogy under a non-disclosure agreement.

Based upon the above, our Board recommends that you reject Trilogy’s offer and not tender your shares of common stock for purchase by Trilogy.

In addition, we encourage you to read the enclosed Schedule 14D-9, which provides further details with regard to our Board’s recommendation and discusses the factors that our Board carefully considered and evaluated in making its decision to reject Trilogy’s offer.

If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact our information agent, MacKenzie Partners, Inc., at the following numbers: Toll-Free 1-800-322-2885 or at 1-212-929-5500 (collect) or by email at autobytel@mackenziepartners.com.

On Behalf of the Board of Directors,

Jeffrey H. Coats
President and Chief Executive Officer

At $0.515, ABTL has a market capitalization of $23.3M, which is approaching our estimate of its $0.54 per share liquidation value. We’re planning to maintain the position as we believe a higher bid is on the cards and Trilogy will know that it is unlikely to get sufficient acceptances at a discount to ABTL’s liquidation value.

[Full Disclosure:  We do not have a holding in ABTL. This is neither a recommendation to buy or sell any securities. All information provided believed to be reliable and presented for information purposes only. Do your own research before investing in any security.]

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We’re getting on the Twitter train. Catch us here: http://twitter.com/Greenbackd

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Ikanos Communications Inc (NASDAQ:IKAN) has acquired the assets of the Broadband Access product line from Conexant Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ: CNXT) for $54M partially funded by a sale of $42M in common stock at $1.75 per share to Tallwood Venture Capital. Upon completion of the transaction, Tallwood Venture Capital will own approximately 45% of IKAN, which means that the possibility of any catalytic event occurring is now remote. While IKAN is still trading at a discount to our calculation of its liquidation and net cash values, without a catalyst our investment thesis is gone, so we’re exiting the position.

We opened the IKAN position at $1.14 and it closed Friday at $1.37, which means we’re up 20.2% on an absolute basis. The S&P500 Index was at 836.57 when we opened the position and closed yesterday at 866.23, which means we’re up 16.6% on a relative basis.

Post mortem

We started following IKAN (see our post archive here) because it was trading at a discount to its net cash and had retained a financial adviser to “assist it in exploring and evaluating strategic alternatives to maximize shareholder value.” IKAN disclosed in its September 10Q that it had retained investment bankers to advise the board about IKAN’s strategic options:

We recently decided to retain Barclays Capital (formerly Lehman Brothers) to provide financial advice regarding potential strategic options for the Company. Such options include, without limitation, financing transactions, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, corporate restructuring and other activities. There can be no assurance that the evaluation of our options will result in the identification, announcement or consummation of any transaction. If the Board of Directors does decide to authorize a transaction, that decision could cause significant volatility in the price of the Company’s outstanding common stock. Moreover, any transactions we do sign may not be acceptable to our stockholders. In addition, our investigation of strategic options may result in added costs, potential loss of customers and key employees as well as management’s distraction from ordinary-course business operations.

We said at the time that there seemed to be some appetite for acquisitions in this industry giving the example of IKAN’s competitor Centillium Communications Inc (NASDAQ: CTLM), which was acquired in October last year. We were hoping that IKAN was to be the vendor, but it seems the “strategic option” favored by IKAN and its investment bankers is to be the acquisition of Conexant’s Broadband Access product line. Here’s the press release:

Ikanos Communications Announces Plans to Acquire Conexant’s Broadband Access Product Line

Tallwood Venture Capital Invests $42 Million

Webcast and Conference Call Details Included for this Event and for

First Quarter 2009 Financial Results

FREMONT, Calif., April 22, 2009, Ikanos Communications, Inc. (NASDAQ: IKAN), a leading provider of broadband semiconductor and software products for the digital home, today announced the signing of a definitive agreement to purchase the Broadband Access product line from Conexant Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ: CNXT). The combined organization will have the expertise and resources required to satisfy the demand for powerful broadband network products around the world.

Under the terms of the agreement, which was unanimously approved by the boards of directors of both companies, Ikanos will purchase Conexant’s Broadband Access product line for $54 million in cash and the assumption of certain employee and facility related liabilities. In connection with this transaction, Tallwood Venture Capital, a leading investment firm focused on the semiconductor industry, has agreed to purchase 24 million shares of Ikanos common stock for $42 million, or $1.75 per share. Tallwood will also receive warrants to purchase an additional 7.8 million shares of common stock at $1.75 per share. The warrants will have a term of five years. Upon completion of the transactions, Tallwood Venture Capital will own approximately 45 percent of the outstanding shares of Ikanos (excluding the warrants). In addition, following the transaction, George Pavlov, general partner, and Dado Banatao, managing partner, will join Ikanos’ Board of Directors.

Ikanos’ purchase of Conexant’s Broadband Access product line is subject to customary closing conditions, including stockholder and regulatory approvals, and is expected to be completed in the third quarter of calendar year 2009.

Ikanos expects that the transaction will more than double the Company’s revenue, while providing significant leverage in its cost and spending structure. Ikanos also expects that the transaction will be accretive to its non-GAAP earnings per share within the first year after the close of the transaction.

“With the number of home networks doubling to more than 400 million by 2013 according to analysts, there’s a substantial opportunity for Ikanos to address the need for delivering bandwidth to and throughout the home,” said Michael Gulett, president and CEO of Ikanos. “We’ll use our strengthened leadership in broadband access as a platform on which to build new offerings that extend multi-play services seamlessly everywhere they are needed.”

Today, Ikanos and Conexant account for a cumulative 330 million broadband access ports shipped, bringing the power of the Internet to millions of people around the world. Conexant’s Broadband Access product line has traditionally been strong in North America and China while Ikanos has led in Japan, Korea and Europe. The combined company will be well positioned to address the global market for broadband semiconductors, and better serve customers in all geographies.

“Customers should not be concerned about product transitions. Once the acquisition is complete, the combined company will continue to make available and support the products acquired from Conexant along with the products of Ikanos,” added Gulett.

The combination of Ikanos and Conexant’s Broadband Access product line brings together the industry’s most comprehensive portfolio of broadband access products. Ikanos will build on its status as the VDSL market share leader, will add substantial ADSL market share, and will have a broad product portfolio that includes SHDSL, 802.11 b/g wireless networking, Ethernet switching, and passive optical networking (PON). In addition, the combined company will have both MIPS- and ARM-based processors that are powering broadband access networks around the world.

The combined company will also have the expertise to enable service providers and network equipment manufacturers to effectively build advanced networks, and deploy multi-play services including high-speed Internet, Internet protocol television (IPTV), voice-over Internet protocol (VoIP) and fixed-mobile convergence (FMC) offerings. The combined organization’s customers will include a vast array of industry leading network equipment manufacturers and service providers from around the world.

“The combined company brings together a talented team of employees that pioneered and set the standards for the broadband market,” said Craig Garen, senior vice president and general manager of Conexant’s Broadband Access business. “Going forward, we’ll continue to innovate and create new broadband access and home networking products that deliver enhanced value to the marketplace.”

Both Ikanos and Conexant have been strong, active proponents of industry standards, and are advancing the development of next-generation technologies like ITU-T G.hn for whole-home networking, retransmission and the dynamic spectrum management. The combined company will have a portfolio of intellectual property that will include well over 400 patents and applications.

“This transaction brings together a powerful combination of leading products, strong customer relationships, and deep technical expertise, all dedicated to the broadband market,” said George Pavlov, general partner at Tallwood Venture Capital. “The new company that emerges will be able to compete more effectively in existing and emerging markets, develop exciting new products, and provide greater value for its most important stakeholders – its customers, investors and employees.”

IKAN is still trading at a discount to both its net cash and liquidation valuations, so it’s difficult to exit when the possibility of additional upside is good. IKAN is still burning cash, so that value will deteriorate, and our investment thesis was based on some catalytic event occurring before the value was dissipated. Tallwood Venture Capital’s 45% holding (excluding the 7.8M warrants) means that Tallwood has control, which in turn means the chance of a catalytic event occurring that could realize that value is now low. For those reasons, we’re out.

Hat tip to JM.

[Full Disclosure:  We have a holding in IKAN. This is neither a recommendation to buy or sell any securities. All information provided believed to be reliable and presented for information purposes only. Do your own research before investing in any security.]

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Portfolio has a profile on Bill Ackman by

On starting Gotham Partners:

Ackman entertained the notion that he and Berkowitz might be able to raise tens of millions of dollars for Gotham’s launch-and he managed to talk his way into meeting with many of the wealthy and powerful moguls that he’d set his sights on. He pitched real estate scion Tom Durst and proposed three investment ideas to demonstrate Gotham’s research capacity. Durst declined to invest with the firm but then, according to Ackman, put his own money to work in the companies that Ackman and Berkowitz had recommended. After each had big gains in a matter of months, Durst came back to them and agreed to put money into their fund.

Gotham didn’t come up with anything close to Ackman’s hoped-for sum, mustering only $3.1 million. But in 1993, he and Berkowitz went ahead and launched the fund anyway. In time, Gotham gathered in millions. The Ziff family came in early; legendary investors such as Jack Nash, Leon Levy, Michael Steinhardt, and Seth Klarman also put money in.

In 1994, Gotham bought shares in a real estate investment trust poised to take control of Rockefeller Center, effectively becoming the largest holder of the real estate complex. At the time, the New York commercial real estate market was in a devastating slump. Thrusting himself into a highly publicized takeover battle, Ackman scored huge returns on his investment when the REIT was bought. He was on the map.

On his Farmer Mac investment:

Over the next three years, his fund averaged returns of 40 percent annually after fees. Gotham hardly ever shorted or bet against companies. But one day in early 2002, Whitney Tilson, a friend of Ackman’s since their days at Harvard College, called him at home to recommend that he buy a stake in a company called Farmer Mac, the Fannie Mae of farm mortgages. Ackman printed the annual report and started reading it around 9 that night. Riveted, he continued past midnight. He called Tilson first thing the next morning, excited. Farmer Mac was indeed an opportunity, but Tilson had it wrong. Ackman didn’t want to buy the stock; he wanted to short it.

Gotham placed its bearish bets. Then Ackman confronted a problem-how to get his negative message out. He began by talking to a reporter at the New York Times but didn’t think the resulting story made the case strongly enough, so he set up a website for the express purpose of displaying a report he wrote, with disclosures that his fund was short Farmer Mac’s stock. Going public on a short is an invitation to be attacked by companies and investors.

Ackman relished the frenzy that ensued. He’s still proud of the report’s title, “Buying the Farm.” And he profited spectacularly from the results: By fall, Farmer Mac’s stock had collapsed.

The first confrontation with MBIA:

Fresh from the Farmer Mac success, Ackman launched an audacious assault on MBIA, a company at the center of both Wall Street and state and local finance across the country. This move would prove remarkably insightful once the financial crisis hit, but vindication would be years in coming. First, Ackman was forced to undergo a remarkable battle with the company and its regulators.

MBIA dominated a sleepy, safe, and wonderful business: insuring municipal bonds from default. Since muni bonds almost never defaulted, MBIA almost never had to pay off the insurance. But when Ackman surveyed the company’s filings, he realized that MBIA had, to a degree utterly unrecognized by Wall Street, shifted into the business of insuring a vast array of much more dangerous paper: collateralized-debt obligations, or CDOs, which were constructed by the big banks to combine the bonds of multiple companies.

Expecting MBIA to default, Gotham began buying credit-default swaps, a form of short-selling in the unregulated derivatives market. If other investors became worried that MBIA would default, Ackman could sell the credit-default swaps for a gain; if MBIA actually did default, he would make a king’s ransom.

MBIA got wind of Ackman’s research and asked to meet with him. On November 21, 2002, Gotham representatives sat down with top MBIA executives. As people who were there recall the meeting, Jay Brown, the CEO of MBIA, began by saying how long he had been in the insurance business. “No one has ever questioned my reputation or my company’s,” he said. “You are using an unregulated market to manipulate a regulated market,” referring to MBIA’s insurance business. “You’re a young guy. It’s early in your career. You want to think very hard before you release that report,” Brown said, pointing out that MBIA was the largest guarantor of municipal bonds in New York State and the country.

“Is there anything you disagree with or that’s factually inaccurate?” Ackman asked.

“This is not about the facts,” Brown replied. “Let’s put it this way: We have friends in high places.” (An MBIA spokesperson says that the purpose of the meeting was to learn Ackman’s intentions and to request an early copy of his report to be able to point out any inaccuracies.)

The tense encounter lasted less than a half-hour. As they walked out, Ackman’s analyst shook Brown’s hand. Ackman then held his hand out to the CEO. Brown looked at it, lifted his arm up, and said, “I don’t think so.”

The article is worth a look. See it quick before Portfolio goes the way of the Dodo.

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